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"All the girls are white, all the Blacks are male": experiences of young Black women on the East Coast
Previous scholarship has found that African American adolescent girls and young women experience isolation, exclusion in the classroom and are assumed to be "deviant" in some research. Such research on Black girls does not include a Black cultural perspective. Nevertheless, Black young women develop methods of resilience throughout their girlhood to overcome these challenges often using these methods into adulthood. Through semistructured interviews and participant observation of four African American teenagers, this qualitative study investigated participants' lives in an urban community center ("Bridges") on the East Coast of the United States. Employing the use of grounded theory, the study found four themes. The first theme was that education was important and central to all participants. The young women found teachers' accessibility, expectations, and curricula to influence their experiences in the classroom. An appreciation of gender-specific programming was the second theme. The programming helped develop self esteem, positive relationships, and community involvement. A key to this programming was the racial makeup of staff at Bridges, in which Black women were the majority. Third, all participants discussed sexual harassment in their schools, neighborhoods and communities, and emphasized the importance of educating younger peers about topics important in their community including sexual harassment. Finally, all four participants were applying to and getting accepted by colleges. Implications of these themes for the lives of young African American girls are discussed.
"But some of us are [still] brave": The experiences of Black women engaging in graduate women's studies
The purpose of this exploratory qualitative thesis is to give voice to five Black women engaged in graduate women's studies. This thesis broadens our understanding of the lived experiences of Black women engaging in graduate women's studies. Using qualitative in-depth feminist interviewing, this study focuses on (a) determining how Black women engaging in women's studies perceive their graduate school experiences; (b) ascertaining what challenges Black women engaging in women's studies face in graduate school; and (c) identifying what strategies Black women engaging in women's studies employ to negotiate their graduate school experiences. In this thesis, I draw upon Black feminist thought and critical race theory to analyze my in-depth interviews of five Black women graduate students. The research participant narratives and analysis of the data resulted in the emergence of the following prominent themes: (a) tokenization; (b) turmoil while teaching; (c) conceptualization of women's studies as an "intellectual space"; (d) critiques of the coursework, subjugation of scholarship, and departmental dilemmas; (e) seeking support: mentoring, advising, and community building; and (f) academic survival strategies. Research participants were often negatively racialized and gendered throughout their graduate experiences. This thesis is organized into five chapters. Chapter 1 introduces my qualitative research study. I place my research within the historical context of the feminist movement and the progression of women's studies as in an academic discipline. Then, I situate myself as a Black feminist researcher studying Black women. Chapter 2: Review of the Literature presents a critical analysis of related research on Black women graduate students, Black male graduate students and other graduate students of color. My research primarily demonstrates that Black women graduate students experience tokenism, classroom conflict, discomfort with exclusionary curriculum, subordination of their research, and insufficient mentoring. Thus, my research findings were confirmed by the extant literature. Then, Chapter 3: Methods and Methodologies explores the methodological techniques used to carry out this study including in-depth feminist interviewing and employment of feminist methodologies, Black feminist thought, and critical race theory and methodology. Chapter 4: Results and Discussion presents the study results and a thematic analysis informed by Black feminist thought and critical race theory. In the final chapter, Chapter 5: Conclusion I close with a summary of my research findings, implications for women's studies, research limitations, areas for future research, recommendations, and my personal reflections on the research process., San Diego State University
"Comrades in the struggle" : a qualitative exploration into the lives of men who participate in LGBTQ activism programs
Includes bibliographical references (p. 41-46), In this thesis, I examine the reasons why heterosexual men participate in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) activism as well as discover their daily experiences being activists. I looked at gender, sexuality, and activism literature to frame my research question: "What is it like being a heterosexual man who participates in LBGTQ activism?" In this qualitative thesis I focused on interviews with nine self-identified heterosexual men and found three overarching themes between these men's tales of their activism. The themes are: (1) motivations for participating in activism, (2) the daily experiences of men who are allies, and (3) advice to future allies. By attending to the perspective of these men who participate in LGBTQ activism, not only did I gain an understanding of why men participate in activism but we also understand how sexuality and gender are related to involvement in such LGBTQ activism programs
"Do you feel like a woman or do you feel like a drag queen" A queer linguistic analysis of drag queen speech
In this thesis I argue for a flexible conceptualization of semantics, using the negotiation of the meaning of gendered words in drag queen speech on RuPaul’s Drag Race as a case study. I begin with a critique of the formal semantics approach to word meaning. I then provide a summary of semantic theories which view word meanings and categories as flexible and negotiable, followed by a discussion of how those theories fit into a queer lens. I then apply those theories to drag queen speech. I argue that the drag queen community, while using gendered words in a way that violates the rules of Standard American English (SAE), does not follow a different set of rules for linguistic gender. Rather, the differences can be attributed to the social context of the utterances, whose semantics are negotiated in situ, suggesting that the meaning of gendered words are context-dependent rather than based on necessary and sufficient conditions. I argue that drag queen speech adds to a non-normative meaning of gender. Finally, language attitudes of participants on RuPaul’s Drag Race demonstrate that although drag performance and linguistic drag is subversive to an extent, individual drag queen attitudes about gender may lie within the normative gender binary. However, for at least some drag queens, gender fluidity is essential to their expressed gender attitudes. Regardless of individual gender and language attitudes, the flexibility of linguistic gender in drag queen speech has important implications for theories of semantic meaning.
"Ecological moderators of the relation between neighborhood safety and physical activity"
Objective: Targeting neighborhood characteristics (e.g., pedestrian infrastructure) is a promising mechanism to increase physical activity (PA). However, the association with neighborhood safety and PA is unclear. An ecological approach, which considers multiple levels of influence, may help clarify the association. The current dissertation bridged the PA and injury prevention fields by assessing multilevel moderators of the association between neighborhood safety and PA. Methods: The three samples were overweight/obese adults from San Diego, CA (Study 1, n=298), adolescents from Seattle, WA and Baltimore, MD (Study 2, n=878) and older adults from Seattle, WA (Study 3, n=367). The PA outcomes were self-reported active transport and leisure-time PA, and objective moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Study 1 assessed perceived neighborhood safety (e.g., safety from crime, pedestrian safety). Studies 2 and 3 assessed objectively-measured pedestrian streetscape safety. Moderators were from individual/demographic, psychosocial, home and neighborhood environment levels. Results: Fifteen of the 17 significant (p<.10) moderators found across studies were from individual/demographic or psychosocial levels. Though some moderators were shared across outcomes within the same study (e.g., sex and BMI in Study 1 or barriers in Study 2), race/ethnicity was the only significant moderator across studies (Studies 1 & 2). White non-Hispanic participants benefitted most in safe vs. unsafe neighborhoods, but there were few benefits among minorities. In Studies 2 & 3, the utility of the new objective streetscape safety measure was demonstrated. It was significantly positively associated with neighborhood-based PA among older adults, but negatively associated among adolescents. Conclusion: The association of neighborhood safety with PA was complex and varied by subgroup. The findings demonstrate the utility of an ecological approach to better understand PA, particularly exploring cross-level interactions. Both perceived and objectively-assessed neighborhood safety had subgroup-specific effects, suggesting each age-group should be targeted separately (e.g., targeting pedestrian safety for older adults). More research is needed that incorporates objectively-assessed pedestrian safety, and interventions should tailor based on individual/demographic and psychosocial characteristics. Interventions can modify safety-related streetscape characteristics to reduce or eliminate traffic-related fatalities and injuries among pedestrians, and may have a dual benefit of facilitating greater physical activity in neighborhoods.
"Have a drink, you'll feel better"; predictors of daily alcohol consumption among extraverts ; the mediational role of coping
Historically, college students have been shown to consume more alcohol relative to similar age groups who do not attend college. A recent estimate indicates that the average number of alcoholic drinks consumed per week by undergraduates is around five standard drinks. This predisposes undergraduate heavy drinkers to a myriad of negative outcomes including academic, social, physical, and psychological problems. Many studies have attempted to identify personality types which may be predisposed to subsequent alcohol use, however, others have largely abandoned this quest for an "alcoholic personality" and have adopted more complicated approaches by linking personality measures with intrinsic motivations to drink, and drinking as a response to stress (i.e., coping). To date, a vast majority of research in these domains have focused primarily on the personality dimension of neuroticism, while a paucity of literature exists measuring extraversion specifically, and literature that does exist has yielded varying results. The present thesis focused on how undergraduates, specifically extraverts, cope with stress on a daily level and how those coping strategies may leave them predisposed to subsequent alcohol use. Using a daily diary approach, this study tested the applicability of the differential coping choice model in a sample of undergraduate college students, with the goal of testing mediational pathways from extraversion and coping (problem-focused and social support) predicting alcohol consumption. Three hundred sixty six participants completed an Internet-based diary page once a day for five consecutive days and among other measures, reported their daily stress level, coping strategies utilized, and how much they drank. Results confirmed initial hypotheses that at the individual level, higher scores on the extraversion scale were associated with higher levels of drinks being consumed per day. At the daily level, increased use of daily problem-focused coping strategies were associated with fewer drinks being consumed per day while increased use of daily social support coping was marginally predictive of higher levels of drinks being consumed per day. These results suggest the relationship between extraversion and alcohol consumption to be at least partially mediated by these two coping strategies.
"I can see Russia from my house": Tina Fey's impersonation of Sarah Palin as a template for media coverage in the 2008 presidential election
Political humor is a major component of the election system in the United States. Politicians often struggle to escape the quick wits of a satirist or the ironic portrayals of themselves conducted through impersonations. While political comedy is nothing new, the 2008 presidential election ushered in new potential for political humorists with the nomination of Sarah Palin as the Republican vice presidential candidate. Following Palin's nomination, Tina Fey began performing impersonations of Palin regularly on Saturday Night Live. Fey's impersonations of Palin immediately sparked controversy and discussion amongst the media. Major media outlets reported on the impersonation, heavily examined it, used it as a reference point for more serious political discussions, and debated over its effect on audiences; CNN even coined the phrase "Tina Fey Effect" during this time. By integrating Meyer's rhetorical functions of humor, an analysis of the media's reaction to Tina Fey's impersonation of Sarah Palin will reveal the power and impact of this impersonation. In addition, this analysis will develop a more coherent and extensive knowledge regarding impersonations, humor as a rhetorical devise, political comedy, SNL, and the media's interpretation of entertaining political shows.
"I definitely did not report it when I was raped...#WeBelieveChrsitine #MeToo": A content of analysis of disclosures of sexual assault on Twitter
The emergence of the #MeToo movement in 2017 sparked a widespread focus on the societal issue of sexual misconduct. Under the umbrella of sexual misconduct is the neglected issue of sexual assault. This study examines sexual assault disclosures through the context of the #MeToo movement on Twitter. Through the use of content analysis, online disclosures of sexual assault are examined for variations of sexual explicitness and attainment of social functions per the functional theory of self-disclosure. Specifically, this study explores associations between Twitter network structure and 1) levels of sexual explicitness and 2) retweet count. The study seeks to shift the focus of disclosure discourse from interpersonal communication to the contemporary online setting of social media.Implications for theory and practice are discussed. Keywords: sexual assault, Me Too, Twitter, self-disclosure, sexual explicitness, San Diego State University

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