In Kazakhstan, the HIV epidemic is largely confined to the injection drug user (IDU) population. Cultural stigma and discrimination discourage this population from seeking information on HIV testing, treatment, and prevention. The present study was designed to assess perceived barriers to seeking and accessing voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) and to examine factors that could account for those barriers. Participants were selected by a respondent driven sampling technique and were administered a standardized, face-to-face survey. The final sample included 1,071 IDU in Kazakhstan in 2006. Within the sample population, the mean age was 32.4 years (SD= 7.618), 80.4% were male, and 70.1% had reported being previously tested for HIV. A logistic regression model was developed to determine the influence of twelve common perceived barriers to HIV testing behavior. Three distinct barriers including fear of a positive result, the perception of more immediate problems, and inconvenient testing center hours predicted testing behavior. This analysis hopes to contribute to the development of HIV preventive approaches that may aid in creating effective programming and outreach efforts within the IDU population in Central Asia.