This comparative-descriptive study examined school board members' perceptions of their behaviors and beliefs related to student achievement in California's high-performing poverty districts compared to school board members' perceptions of their behaviors and beliefs related to student achievement in California's low-performing poverty districts. A review of the literature revealed scant empirical research regarding school board governance and student achievement. Among the few studies producing quantitative data, The Lighthouse Inquiry found seven Key Areas of Board Performance, which served as the conceptual framework for this research. This study employed a mixed-methods research design. School board members meeting the study criteria supplied quantitative data through their responses to 56 Likert-type questions administered in an on-line survey. The researcher used descriptive statistics to analyze the quantitative data. In the second phase of the study, qualitative data were collected from two informal, semistructured interviews with one board member from a high-performing school district meeting the criteria for this study and one board member from a low-performing school district meeting the criteria for this study. The survey and interview data indicate more similarities than differences between the behaviors and beliefs of school board members in high- and low-performing school districts. The results from survey responses aggregated for each Key Area of Board Performance show the greatest difference in the Key Areas of Connecting with the Community and Deliberative Policy Development. The study concludes that state and federal accountability, governance training, and inadequate school funding play a role in school board governance as it relates to student achievement. Recommendations for further study include empirical research of effective governance training, school board decisions related to funding allocation, school board focus on student learning, and methods used by school boards to connect with community agencies for the purpose of leveraging resources.