Over the past twenty years, mining conflicts in Peru have multiplied. In the early nineties, President Fujimori implemented neoliberal policies that privatized and deregulated the mining industry, and allowed transnational mining corporations to disregard the local impact of their activities. Residents near mining operations soon experienced the destruction of their environment and their means of survival. In response, communities often resisted mining operations and challenged mining interests. Companies countered with strategies to mitigate opposition and protect their interests. The Peruvian state mostly followed neoliberal practices of accommodating foreign investment, showing indifference towards affected communities. This study examines the case of La Oroya and its struggle against the U.S.- based mining company, Doe Run Peru, by placing the actions of the community, transnational companies, and the state within a broader context of global neoliberal policies and communities elsewhere challenging their effects.