Rationale. Distress screening is recognized as a standard of practice to address the psychosocial needs of distressed cancer patients. Experts point to receipt of psychosocial care as a critical factor in successful implementation of distress screening programs; however, research in this area is limited. The current study evaluated receipt of psychosocial care following distress screening at a comprehensive cancer center by documenting rates at which distressed cancer patients received psychosocial contacts and services, documenting time to receipt of contacts and services, and identifying which patient, clinical, and health system factors predict receipt and timing of contacts and services following distress screening. Design. A retrospective secondary data analysis of clinical and medical record data for 149 cancer patients routinely screened for distress during a one-month period in 2016 at a comprehensive cancer center was conducted. Results. Of the 149 patients included in this study, 146 (97.99%) were identified as distressed. All 146 distressed patients received automated printed educational materials and at least one automated notification for a psychosocial provider. Of the 103 patients identified as needing follow-up by a psychosocial provider, 61.17% and 10.68% received at least one appropriate psychosocial contact and service, respectively; 44.66% and 4.85% received at least the majority of appropriate psychosocial contacts and services, respectively; and 17.48% and 2.91% received all appropriate psychosocial contacts and services, respectively. On average, patients received contacts and services in 8.19 and 4.82 days, respectively. Number of automated notifications and type of first appropriate psychosocial contact predicted receipt of at least one appropriate psychosocial contact and time to receipt of first appropriate psychosocial contact, respectively. Conclusions. The current study addressed major gaps in the distress screening literature by evaluating receipt of appropriate aftercare following distress screening. While all patients screened and identified as distressed received automated printed educational materials, only some patients received appropriate psychosocial contacts, and few received appropriate psychosocial services following distress screening. It is imperative that future research evaluate receipt, timing, and predictors of psychosocial contacts and services following distress screening, in order to improve distress screening processes nationwide and better meet the psychosocial needs of distressed cancer patients.