Although varying disciplines have examined the complex impacts of athletic injuries, this phenomenon is relatively understudied in the realm of social sciences. Studies exploring rehabilitation techniques, physical limitations of diverse injuries, and preventative measures for avoiding injuries (including physical measures such as stretching) dominate current scholarly knowledge; however, far less is known about the elements that explain and predict adherence to injury treatment/ avoidance regimens. The health belief model (HBM) was used as the theoretical framework for this investigation. Through the introduction of new elements and components, this study expanded upon the HBM itself. This pilot study aimed to explore how personal belief factors (specifically perceived severity, perceived susceptibility, perceived barriers, perceived benefits, self-esteem, and cues to action) encourage injury treatment and/or avoidance. One hundred and fifty-two athletes participated in this study. Participants completed one of two versions of the questionnaire that was tailored to reflect their current injury status. Results revealed a significant correlation between perceived susceptibility and engagement in injury prevention measures among non-injured athletes as well as a significant correlation between preventive and treatment behaviors among injured athletes. Additionally, among those athletes who had been injured, results indicated two significant correlations: a moderate relationship between their own anxiety about their injury and their adherence to treatment and a strong correlation between pride and adherence to treatment were found. Finally, both injured and non-injured athletes identified communication efficacy and target efficacy as significant predictors of treatment and prevention actions. Together, these findings provide implications for theory related to both personal (i.e., HBM factors of severity and susceptibility) and relational (i.e., the efficacy factors of the theory of motivated information management: TMIM) predictors of prevention and/or treatment behaviors. Trainers, coaches, and athletes alike are now provided with new insight into the relational aspects of injury management.