Marine historical ecological research is taking a central role in helping us understand the effects of humans on nearshore marine ecosystems. On California’s Northern Channel Islands, in particular, historical ecological research has provided information on the history of human-environmental ecodynamics, and this research can act as a model for similar studies around the globe. Using data from 26 archaeological sites or site components spanning the last 10,000 years on San Miguel Island, and size data collected by modern resource managers, we compared the population distribution of black abalone ( Haliotis cracherodii) to identify trends related to cultural and environmental changes. These data provide a better understanding of the history of black abalone populations, offer deep historical baselines to evaluate their recovery along the islands, and have implications for the monitoring and restoration of this endangered species. This study serves as an example of the type of historical ecological research that can be conducted in other island environments, specifically in the Solomon Islands. In order to establish a historical ecological research program, however, we must first establish a cultural chronology of the area. I present the results of a recent archaeological survey and radiocarbon dates collected from Simbo Island, in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands, aimed at building a cultural chronology for the island. Historical ecology can do much to shed light on long-term human-environment interaction, but the history of human occupation on Simbo is not well understood. The findings discussed herein represent an important step in understanding human occupation of Simbo and developing a historical ecological research program on the island.