The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among science self-efficacy, beliefs, and professional noticing skills of elementary science teachers with multiple lesson study experiences. Effective implementation of the Next Generation Science Standards require that many teachers shift their pedagogical approach from a traditional content delivery, or confirmatory model, to a more student-centered, instructional model more closely aligned with the constructivist theory of developing understanding. Literature describes that elementary teachers tend to have lower self-efficacy in regards to teaching science, while science professional learning opportunities for elementary teachers have been limited. The professional learning strategy of lesson study addresses the core components of quality professional learning that may shift teacher beliefs, increase self-efficacy, and skill in noticing student science ideas. This study employed a sequential, explanatory mixed-methods design that utilized the results of an efficacy and belief instrument in combination with a series of three individual semi-structured interviews. Teachers in this study attributed lesson study with positively changing their classroom practice specifically in the areas of science pedagogy and content understanding. This aligns with other research in the field related to content oriented professional learning. Additionally, participants skewed heavily toward responsive and reform-based belief stances, however these characteristics were not predictive of their ability to notice student science ideas. Implications from this study include recommendations to modify the lesson study process to include professional noticing. Future research should examine the role that lesson study plays in influencing teachers to engage in science leadership roles and actions.