This thesis investigates the cooperation between Cyprus, Israel, and Egypt that led to foundation of the Eastern Mediterranean Gas Forum (EMGF), a new ambitious regional energy initiative. It focuses on the motivations and factors that encouraged these countries to initiate this unique arrangement for energy cooperation at multiple levels. The concepts of energy security and energy interdependence are discussed in order to shed a light on the countries’ energy priorities. Furthermore, theories of geopolitics (classical, critical and energy focused) are discussed. They help explain each country’s geopolitical threat perceptions and bring to light the geopolitical and economic factors that prompted the formation of the EMGF. In short, the crucial motivation was a shared perception of increased energy security.